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Lanzamiento Vookly

Público·39 miembros
Bulat Tretyakov
Bulat Tretyakov

Episode 2.3 Online Gratuito |LINK|



BED was recently included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; [2]) as a distinct eating disorder diagnosis. BED is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, involving the consumption of an objectively large amount of food accompanied by a sense of loss of control in the absence of regular inappropriate compensatory behaviors [2]. In various studies, BED was shown to be associated with increased eating disorder psychopathology (e.g., weight and shape concern), general psychopathology (e.g., comorbid depression, anxiety disorder, borderline personality disorder, and substance use disorders), and obesity, providing evidence for its clinical significance [5,6].




Episode 2.3 online gratuito



Eating disorder diagnosis was based on the DSM-5 criteria for BED [2]. In addition, as this study was planned before the DSM-5 criteria for BED were published, subsyndromal BED included the modified criteria of two instead of three or more behavioral indicators or lack of substantial distress [24]. Exclusion criteria in both groups comprised non-corrected impaired vision, current intake of psychotropic medication or medication affecting weight or eating behaviour, current substance abuse or addiction, psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, neurological disease, pregnancy or lactation, and at least one episode of inappropriate compensatory behavior within the last three months. Further, in the CG, objective binge-eating episodes within the last three months were an exclusion criterion.


The lack of a gaze direction bias towards food stimuli and the longer overall gaze duration on non-food stimuli in BED might be explained by the recently introduced concept of motivational ambivalence, i.e., an approach-avoidance conflict regarding food stimuli in BED [37]. As assessed by self-report, individuals with BED and who were overweight rated food stimuli significantly more positively than control groups, whereas indirect evaluation of food stimuli via facial electromyography, i.e., recording of involuntary muscle activation during stimulus presentation, turned out to be negative in both the BED and control groups [37]. This approach-avoidance conflict, indicated by positive self-report but negative facial electromyography, was most noticeable in participants with BED [37]. Another recent study also reported a visual approach-avoidance pattern towards food stimuli in a clinical sample of participants with binge-eating behaviors and severe obesity during a visual probe task [17]. In the present study, food stimuli were rated less attractive by the BED than by the control group. In addition, attention was directed longer towards non-food stimuli in both groups during the eye-tracking paradigm, which might be interpreted as avoidance of food stimuli [37]. However, the BED group looked longer at food stimuli than controls, which might indicate an approach component [37]. Further, correlational analyses in our study showed that in the subgroup with full-syndrome BED, lower BMI and more objective binge-eating episodes were associated with an increased initial attention towards food stimuli. These results suggest that higher BED symptomatology, i.e., more objective binge-eating episodes, is related to an approach pattern towards food in early stages of attentional processing.


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Several calls have recently been issued to the social sciences for enhanced transparency of research processes and enhanced rigor in the methodological treatment of data and data analytics. We propose the use of graphical descriptives (GDs) as one mechanism for responding to both of these calls. GDs provide a way to visually examine data. They serve as quick and efficient tools for checking data distributions, variable relations, and the potential appropriateness of different statistical analyses (e.g., do data meet the minimum assumptions for a particular analytic method). Consequently, we believe that GDs can promote increased transparency in the journal review process, encourage best practices for data analysis, and promote a more inductive approach to understanding psychological data. We illustrate the value of potentially including GDs as a step in the peer-review process and provide a user-friendly online resource (www.graphicaldescriptives.org) for researchers interested in including data visualizations in their research. We conclude with suggestions on how GDs can be expanded and developed to enhance transparency. The Author(s) 2016.


Depression is common and an important consequence of stroke but there is limited information on the longer-term relationship between these conditions. To identify the prevalence, incidence and predictors of depression in a secondary-care-based cohort of stroke survivors aged over 75 years, from 3 months to up to 10 years post-stroke. Depression was assessed annually by three methods: major depression by DSM-IV criteria, the self-rated Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the observer-rated Cornell scale. We found the highest rates, 31.7% baseline prevalence, of depressive symptoms with the GDS compared with 9.7% using the Cornell scale and 1.2% using DSM-IV criteria. Incidence rates were 36.9, 5.90 and 4.18 episodes per 100 person years respectively. Baseline GDS score was the most consistent predictor of depressive symptoms at all time points in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Other predictors included cognitive impairment, impaired activities of daily living and in the early period, vascular risk factor burden and dementia. Our results emphasise the importance of psychiatric follow-up for those with early-onset post-stroke depression and long-term monitoring of mood in people who have had a stroke and remain at high risk of depression.


The use of 'poppers' (volatile alkyl nitrites) has been associated with the development of visual symptoms secondary to the development of maculopathy. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of this condition among poppers users. The aim of this study was to quantify the presence of visual symptoms among poppers users from a global cohort. The Global Drug Survey (GDS) conducts annual anonymous online surveys of drug and alcohol use. Within the 2012 GDS, questions were inserted regarding the presence of visual symptoms in poppers users. The GDS received a total of 21 575 valid responses, with a total of 17 479 from the UK, Australia, USA and Eurozone. Within these areas, 5152 (29.5%) had used poppers within their lifetime and 1322 (7.6%) within the previous year. Of the 'last year' users, when asked the question: 'Do you think poppers use has affected your eyesight?', 29 (2.2%) people responded 'yes', 130 (10.0%) responded 'maybe' and 1146 (87.8%) responded 'no (17 people did not answer). Both multiple choice and free-text responses regarding the nature of visual symptoms correlated with the central visual disturbance that would be expected from maculopathy. There was significant increased symptom prevalence with age (likelihood ratio (χ 2 )=19.0; p


Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995-2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics (e.g., geometric means (GM)). We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (inter-quartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from 7 studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.3; 15 statistics, 5 studies) in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95%CI: 1.1-1.4) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.2-1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for


Depression in the elderly might represent a prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease (AD). High levels of plasma amyloid beta-42 (Aβ42) were found in prestages of AD and also in depressed patients in cross-sectional studies. This study examined the association of emerging late-onset depression (LOD) and AD with plasma Aβ42 in a sample of never depressed and not demented persons at baseline. Prospective 5-year longitudinal study. A community dwelling of older adults (N = 331) from the Vienna Transdanube Aging study. Laboratory measurements, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, 2.5, and 5 years follow-ups. After exclusion of converters to AD, regression analysis revealed that higher plasma Aβ42 at baseline was a positive predictor for conversion to first episode of LOD. Independent of whether persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at 2.5 years were included or excluded into regressions, higher plasma Aβ42 at baseline was a significant predictor for the development of probable or possible AD at 5 years. Higher conversion to AD was also associated with male gender but not with either higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), with stroke or cerebral infarction nor apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. No association was found for an interaction between plasma Aβ42 levels and GDS. Higher plasma Aβ42 at baseline predicted the development of first episode of LOD and conversion to probable or possible AD. Emerging depression as measured by scores on GDS at the 2.5-year follow-up, either alone or as an interaction factor with plasma Aβ42, failed to predict the conversion to AD at 5 years.


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